Punishments range from official warnings, temporary bans, various degrees of account resets, to a permanent ban. The severity of the punishment is based on the type of offense committed while keeping in mind the history of previous offences and warnings. A repeat offender will be dealt with more severely than a first time offender for example.
You may request to be unbanned by posting in the Unban Requests section of the forum. If a duration for the ban was provided, do not post until that amount of time has passed. Doing so may result in the ban being extended.
I again cannot urge you enough to be polite and mature in setting out your unban request. If you have additional information to add to your request before it has been responded to by a member of the Developer team then please use the modify post button. Please do not spam your thread asking why your request has not been answered, it will happen in time.
If you truly believe you have been treated unfairly, contact someone in Dev & Ops. A polite and mature message with a rational argument is far more likely to generate a response than anything else. If however you dispute a ban in a condescending manner or you waste time by disputing an obvious ban, your ban may be extended.